Biomarker

Biomarker Assay Portfolio

Targos offers 250+ biomarker assays, here are some examples from our offer.

ALK


This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily. This protein comprises an extracellular domain, an hydrophobic stretch corresponding to a single pass transmembrane region, and an intracellular kinase domain.  This gene has been found to be rearranged, mutated, or amplified in a series of tumors including anaplastic large cell lymphomas, neuroblastoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. The chromosomal rearrangements are the most common genetic alterations in this gene, which result in creation of multiple fusion genes in tumourigenesis, including ALK (chromosome 2)/EML4 (chromosome 2), ALK/RANBP2 (chromosome 2), ALK/ATIC (chromosome 2), ALK/TFG (chromosome 3), ALK/NPM1 (chromosome 5), ALK/SQSTM1 (chromosome 5), ALK/KIF5B (chromosome 10), ALK/CLTC (chromosome 17), ALK/TPM4 (chromosome 19), and ALK/MSN (chromosome X).

Reference: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/238

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

ATM


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AXL


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α-Syn


 

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Bcl-2


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Bcl-6


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BRAF


This gene encodes a protein belonging to the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene are associated with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation and a distinctive facial appearance. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with various cancers, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, malignant melanoma, thyroid carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of lung. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome X, has been identified for this gene.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/673

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Caspase3


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CD1a


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CD3


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CD31


The protein encoded by this gene is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. The encoded protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is likely involved in leukocyte migration, angiogenesis, and integrin activation.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5175

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CD4


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CD8


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CD10


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CD16


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CD20


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CD20


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CD32


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CD58


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CD64


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CD68


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CD137


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CDH17


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CDK8


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CEA


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c-kit


This gene encodes the human homolog of the proto-oncogene c-kit. C-kit was first identified as the cellular homolog of the feline sarcoma viral oncogene v-kit. This protein is a type 3 transmembrane receptor for MGF (mast cell growth factor, also known as stem cell factor). Mutations in this gene are associated with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, mast cell disease, acute myelogenous lukemia, and piebaldism. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/3815

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

C-Met


The proto-oncogene MET product is the hepatocyte growth factor receptor and encodes tyrosine-kinase activity. The primary single chain precursor protein is post-translationally cleaved to produce the alpha and beta subunits, which are disulfide linked to form the mature receptor. Various mutations in the MET gene are associated with papillary renal carcinoma. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4233

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c-Myc


The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. It functions as a transcription factor that regulates transcription of specific target genes. Mutations, overexpression, rearrangement and translocation of this gene have been associated with a variety of hematopoietic tumors, leukemias and lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma. There is evidence to show that alternative translation initiations from an upstream, in-frame non-AUG (CUG) and a downstream AUG start site result in the production of two isoforms with distinct N-termini. The synthesis of non-AUG initiated protein is suppressed in Burkitt’s lymphomas, suggesting its importance in the normal function of this gene.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4609

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

Cylin-D1


The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance throughout the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. This protein has been shown to interact with tumor suppressor protein Rb and the expression of this gene is regulated positively by Rb. Mutations, amplification and overexpression of this gene, which alters cell cycle progression, are observed frequently in a variety of tumors and may contribute to tumorigenesis.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/595

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EBV


 

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EGFR


The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the protein kinase superfamily. This protein is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family. EGFR is a cell surface protein that binds to epidermal growth factor. Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene.

Reference:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1956

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

EpCAM


EpCAM is expressed on most normal epithelial cells and gastrointestinal carcinomas and functions as a homotypic calcium-independent cell adhesion molecule. The antigen is being used as a target for immunotherapy treatment of human carcinomas. Mutations in this gene result in congenital tufting enteropathy.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4072

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ERK


 

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ER/PR


Estrogen and its receptors (ER) are essential for sexual development and reproductive function, but also play a role in other tissues such as bone. Estrogen receptors are also involved in pathological processes including breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/2099

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

E-Cadherin


E-Cadherin is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. Mutations in this gene are correlated with gastric, breast, colorectal, thyroid and ovarian cancer. Loss of function is thought to contribute to progression in cancer by increasing proliferation, invasion, and/or metastasis. The ectodomain of this protein mediates bacterial adhesion to mammalian cells and the cytoplasmic domain is required for internalization. Identified transcript variants arise from mutation at consensus splice sites.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/999

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

FGFR 1-4


This gene encodes a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family, with its amino acid sequence being highly conserved between members and among divergent species. FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative protein would consist of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single hydrophobic membrane-spanning segment and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream signals, ultimately influencing mitogenesis and differentiation. This particular family member binds acidic and basic fibroblast growth hormone and plays a role in bone development and maintenance. Mutations in this gene lead to craniosynostosis and multiple types of skeletal dysplasia. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/2261

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FoxP3


 

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Gp-130


The protein encoded by this gene is a signal transducer shared by many cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL6), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and oncostatin M (OSM). This protein functions as a part of the cytokine receptor complex. The activation of this protein is dependent upon the binding of cytokines to their receptors. vIL6, a protein related to IL6 and encoded by the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, can bypass the interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) and directly activate this protein. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this gene plays a critical role in regulating myocyte apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/3572

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

HER2/neu


This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This protein has no ligand binding domain of its own and therefore cannot bind growth factors. However, it does bind tightly to other ligand-bound EGF receptor family members to form a heterodimer, stabilizing ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signalling pathways, such as those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Allelic variations at amino acid positions 654 and 655 of isoform a (positions 624 and 625 of isoform b) have been reported, with the most common allele, Ile654/Ile655, shown here. Amplification and/or overexpression of this gene has been reported in numerous cancers, including breast and ovarian tumors. Alternative splicing results in several additional transcript variants, some encoding different isoforms and others that have not been fully characterized.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/2064

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

HER3


 

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<h2 class=“csc-firstHeader“><span style=“color: #003d79;“>HER4</span></h2>

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<h2 class=“csc-firstHeader“><span style=“color: #003d79;“>HGF</span></h2>

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HPV HR7


 

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HRAS


This gene belongs to the Ras oncogene family, whose members are related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses. The products encoded by these genes function in signal transduction pathways. These proteins can bind GTP and GDP, and they have intrinsic GTPase activity. This protein undergoes a continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation, which regulates its rapid exchange between the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus. Mutations in this gene cause Costello syndrome, a disease characterized by increased growth at the prenatal stage, growth deficiency at the postnatal stage, predisposition to tumor formation, mental retardation, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities, distinctive facial appearance and cardiovascular abnormalities. Defects in this gene are implicated in a variety of cancers, including bladder cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Multiple transcript variants, which encode different isoforms, have been identified for this gene.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/3265

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

IDO1


 

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IGF-1R


This receptor binds insulin-like growth factor with a high affinity. It has tyrosine kinase activity. The insulin-like growth factor I receptor plays a critical role in transformation events. Cleavage of the precursor generates alpha and beta subunits. It is highly overexpressed in most malignant tissues where it functions as an anti-apoptotic agent by enhancing cell survival.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/3480

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

Ki-67


This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is associated with and may be necessary for cellular proliferation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. A related pseudogene exists on chromosome X

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4288

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

KRAS


This gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal carcinoma. Alternative splicing leads to variants encoding two isoforms that differ in the C-terminal region.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/3845

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LGR5


 

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Nanostring IO Panel


 

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NRAS

This is an N-ras oncogene encoding a membrane protein that shuttles between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. This shuttling is regulated through palmitoylation and depalmitoylation by the ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex. The encoded protein, which has intrinsic GTPase activity, is activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor and inactivated by a GTPase activating protein. Mutations in this gene have been associated with somatic rectal cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/4893

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MAF


 

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MLH1


 

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MSH6


 

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MSLN


 

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Multiplex IHC IO Panel


 

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p16


This gene generates several transcript variants which differ in their first exons. At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4 kinase. The remaining transcript includes an alternate first exon located 20 Kb upstream of the remainder of the gene; this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein which is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. This ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53 as it can interact with, and sequester, the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. In spite of the structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in cell cycle G1 control. This gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors, and is known to be an important tumor suppressor gene.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1029

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

p-AKT


The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. AKT1 and the related AKT2 are activated by platelet-derived growth factor. The activation is rapid and specific, and it is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1. It was shown that the activation occurs through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In the developing nervous system AKT is a critical mediator of growth factor-induced neuronal survival. Survival factors can suppress apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner by activating the serine/threonine kinase AKT1, which then phosphorylates and inactivates components of the apoptotic machinery. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the Proteus syndrome. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.

Phospho-Akt (p-AKT) antibody detects endogenous levels of Akt only when phosphorylated at Ser473.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/207

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

pC-Met


 

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PD-L1

CD274 molecule


This gene encodes an immune inhibitory receptor ligand that is expressed by hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, such as T cells and B cells and various types of tumor cells. The encoded protein is a type I transmembrane protein that has immunoglobulin V-like and C-like domains. Interaction of this ligand with its receptor inhibits T-cell activation and cytokine production. During infection or inflammation of normal tissue, this interaction is important for preventing autoimmunity by maintaining homeostasis of the immune response. In tumor microenvironments, this interaction provides an immune escape for tumor cells through cytotoxic T-cell inactivation. Expression of this gene in tumor cells is considered to be prognostic in many types of human malignancies, including colon cancer and renal cell carcinoma. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.

Reference: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/29126

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

pEGFR


The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the protein kinase superfamily. This protein is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family. EGFR is a cell surface protein that binds to epidermal growth factor. Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene.

Anti-phospho Y1068-EGR receptor antibody detects human phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR) protein.

Reference:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1956

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

p-ERK


The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of this kinase requires its phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Upon activation, this kinase translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cells, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein, but differing in the UTRs, have been reported for this gene.

Phospho-p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) (Thr202/Tyr204) (D13.14.4E) XP® Rabbit mAb detects endogenous levels of p44 and p42 MAP Kinase (Erk1 and Erk2) when dually phosphorylated at Thr202 and Tyr204 of Erk1 (Thr185 and Tyr187 of Erk2), and singly phosphorylated at Thr202.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5594

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

PGP9.5 / UCH-L1


 

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pHER2


This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This protein has no ligand binding domain of its own and therefore cannot bind growth factors. However, it does bind tightly to other ligand-bound EGF receptor family members to form a heterodimer, stabilizing ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signalling pathways, such as those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Allelic variations at amino acid positions 654 and 655 of isoform a (positions 624 and 625 of isoform b) have been reported, with the most common allele, Ile654/Ile655, shown here. Amplification and/or overexpression of this gene has been reported in numerous cancers, including breast and ovarian tumors. Alternative splicing results in several additional transcript variants, some encoding different isoforms and others that have not been fully characterized.

Phospho-HER2 antibody detects endogenous levels of phospho-HER2/ErbB2 protein.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/2064

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

PM52


 

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pSTAT2


 

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pSTAT3


The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein is activated through phosphorylation in response to various cytokines and growth factors including IFNs, EGF, IL5, IL6, HGF, LIF and BMP2. This protein mediates the expression of a variety of genes in response to cell stimuli, and thus plays a key role in many cellular processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. The small GTPase Rac1 has been shown to bind and regulate the activity of this protein. PIAS3 protein is a specific inhibitor of this protein. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/6774

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

pRB


 

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PTEN


This gene was identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in a large number of cancers at high frequency. The protein encoded this gene is a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase. It contains a tensin like domain as well as a catalytic domain similar to that of the dual specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases. Unlike most of the protein tyrosine phosphatases, this protein preferentially dephosphorylates phosphoinositide substrates. It negatively regulates intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cells and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating AKT/PKB signaling pathway.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5728

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

pHH3


Variant histone H3 which replaces conventional H3 in a wide range of nucleosomes in active genes. Constitutes the predominant form of histone H3 in non-dividing cells and is incorporated into chromatin independently of DNA synthesis. Deposited at sites of nucleosomal displacement throughout transcribed genes, suggesting that it represents an epigenetic imprint of transcriptionally active chromatin. Nucleosomes wrap and compact DNA into chromatin, limiting DNA accessibility to the cellular machineries which require DNA as a template. Histones thereby play a central role in transcription regulation, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability. DNA accessibility is regulated via a complex set of post-translational modifications of histones, also called histone code, and nucleosome remodeling.

Anti-Histone H3 (phospho S10) antibody detects Histone H3 phosphorylated on Serine 10 only.

Reference: http://www.abcam.com/Histone-H3-phospho-S10-antibody-E173-ab32107.html

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

PIK3CA


Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is composed of an 85 kDa regulatory subunit and a 110 kDa catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents the catalytic subunit, which uses ATP to phosphorylate PtdIns, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. This gene has been found to be oncogenic and has been implicated in cervical cancers.

Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5290

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

OX40


 

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RAS


 

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ROS


 

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VEGFR1


The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR-1, Flt-1) is a 180 kDa receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the VEGFR (Flt) family (1-3). The receptor is comprised of seven extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane region and cytoplasmic tail containing the active kinase domain (1,2). VEGFR-1 plays an important role in endothelial cell function and normal vascular development, as well as in hematopoietic function (2,3). VEGF-A is a high affinity ligand of VEGFR-1. VEGFR-1 also binds VEGF-B and PLGF (2). Ligand binding results in very little VEGFR-1 kinase activation, and VEGFR-1/VEGF-A binding negatively regulates VEGF function by diverting the growth factor from other functional VEGF receptors (3).

Two forms of the VEGF receptor 1 are found in cells. Both the membrane-bound form described above and a soluble isoform of VEGFR-1 (sVEGFR-1 or sFlt-1) bind the VEGF ligand with high affinity (4). Full-length VEGFR-1 and the truncated, soluble protein are encoded by the same gene and are generated through differential splicing. Both proteins are associated with an array of human disorders and are potential candidates for therapeutic study (5).

References:

  1. Ferrara, N. et al. (2003) Nat Med 9, 669-76.
  2. Clauss, M. (2000) Semin Thromb Hemost 26, 561-9.
  3. Claesson-Welsh, L. (2003) Biochem Soc Trans 31, 20-4.
  4. Kendall, R.L. et al. (1996) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 226, 324-8.
  5. Shibuya, M. (2006) Angiogenesis 9, 225-30; discussion 231.

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

VEGFR2


Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2, KDR, Flk-1) is a major receptor for VEGF-induced signaling in endothelial cells. Upon ligand binding, VEGFR2 undergoes autophosphorylation and becomes activated. Major autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR2 are located in the kinase insert domain (Tyr951/996) and in the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain (Tyr1054/1059). Activation of the receptor leads to rapid recruitment of adaptor proteins, including Shc, GRB2, PI3 kinase, NCK, and the protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2. Phosphorylation at Tyr1212 provides a docking site for GRB2 binding and phospho-Tyr1175 binds the p85 subunit of PI3 kinase and PLCγ, as well as Shb. Signaling from VEGFR2 is necessary for the execution of VEGF-stimulated proliferation, chemotaxis and sprouting, as well as survival of cultured endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo.

Reference: http://www.cellsignal.com/products/2479.html

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

Vimentin


Vimentin is a type III intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed in mesenchymal cells. Vimentin is over-expressed in various epithelial cancers, including prostate cancer, gastrointestinal tumors, tumors of the central nervous system, breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and lung cancer.

For details contact: info@targos-gmbh.de.

Example of multiplex immunohistochemistry (5 colors)